Witr Salah in Makkah and Madinah

Witr Ṣalāh in Makkah and Madinah

Q: When we visit Makkah and Madinah in Ramadan, should we perform Witr Ṣalāh behind the Imām who does Salām after the second Rak’ah?

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم

Answer

According to the Ḥanafī school of thought, Witr Ṣalāh consists of three Rak’ah with one set of Salām at the end of the third Rak’ah. However, according to the Shāfi’ī, Mālikī and Ḥanbalī schools of thought, Witr Ṣalāh consists of three Rak’ah with Salām after the second Rak’ah as well as after the third Rak’ah. Accordingly, there is a difference of opinion regarding the validity of a Ḥanafī performing Witr Ṣalāh behind an Imām who leads Witr in this manner with two sets of Salām. The dominant position within the Ḥanafī school of thought is that this is not valid[1] because the Salām after the second Rak’ah invalidates the Ṣalāh. However, many Ḥanafī scholars are of the opinion that the Witr Ṣalāh is valid. This view is shared by many of my teachers as well as many Hanafi scholars from the past and present. They include:

  1. Imām Abū Ja’far al-Hindawānī[2] (d. 362 H.[3])
  2. Imām Abū Bakr al-Jaṣṣāṣ al-Rāzī[4] (d. 370 H. [5]).
  3. Qaḍī Abū Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Wahhāb Ibn Aḥmad Ibn Wahban al-Dimishqī [6] (d. 768 H.[7]).
  4. Sheikh al-Islam Sirājuddīn Abū Ḥafṣ ‘Umar Ibn ‘Alī Ibn Fāris[8] (d. 829 H. [9]), the teacher of ‘Allāmah Ibn al-Humām (d. 861 H.).
  5. Hāfiẓ Badruddin al-‘Aynī[10] (d. 855 H.).
  6. ‘Allāmah ‘Abd al-Ḥayy al-Laknawī[11] (1304 H.).
  7. Sheikh al-Hind Mawlana Mahmudul Hasan Deobandi[12] (1339 H.).
  8. Allāmah Anwar Shāh al-Kashmīrī[13] (1353 H.).
  9. Sheikh Muḥammad Yūsuf Binorī[14] (1397 H.).
  10. Mawlānā ‘Abd al-Ḥaq, Peshawar, Pakistan[15] (1409 H.).
  11. Mawlānā Mujāhid al-Islām Qāsmī (d. 1423 H.) and a group of Indian scholars. This is also the view of Darul Uloom Deoband[16].
  12. Muḥaddithul ‘Aṣr Mawlānā Muḥammad Yūnus Jownpūrī.
  13. Muftī Muḥammad Taqī Usmānī, Karachi, Pakistan[17].
  14. Muftī Muḥammad Rafī Usmānī, Karachi, Pakistan[18].
  15. Sheikh Yūsuf Motālā, Darul Uloom Bury, UK.
  16. Muftī Shabbīr Aḥmad, Darul Uloom Bury, UK.
  17. Muftī Ṭāhir Wādī, Darul Uloom Bury, UK.
  18. Muftī Salmān Manṣūrpūrī, Moradabad, India[19].
  19. Muftī Shabbīr Aḥmad Qāsmī, Moradabad, India[20].
  20. Mawlānā Khālid Sayfullāh Raḥmānī, India[21].

The preferred opinion is that Witr Ṣalāh in Makkah and Madinah is valid and should be performed for the following reasons:

  1. The Prophet ﷺ performed Witr Ṣalāh in this manner as well, as narrated in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (990, 993) and other books of Ḥadīth.
  2. Many companions performed Witr in this manner including ‘Abdullāh Ibn ‘Umar[22], ‘Uthmān Ibn ‘Affān[23], Abū Mūsa al-Ash’arī[24], Abū Hurayrah[25] and others[26] (May Allah be pleased with them).
  3. Performing Witr Ṣalāh in this manner has been narrated from great luminaries and scholars including Muḥammad Ibn Sīrīn[27], Ḥasan al-Baṣrī[28], ‘Aṭā Ibn Abī Rabāḥ[29], Sa’īd Ibn al-Musayyib[30], al-Awzā’ī[31], Abu Thawr[32], Mālik Ibn Anas[33], Muḥammad Ibn Idrīs al-Shāfi’ī[34], Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal[35], Isḥāq Ibn Rāhwayh[36] and others.
  4. There is no narration or historical account that indicates that the companions or their followers would refrain from performing Ṣalāh behind an Imām who held another opinion on a jurisprudential matter such as this one.
  5. Performing Ṣalāh with the large congregation in Makkah and Madinah is a means of immense reward.
  6. Abstention from performing Witr Ṣalāh in congregation in Makkah and Madinah is not conducive to unity and could lead to friction and division.
  7. Advising the general public to refrain and walk away from the congregational Witr prayer could result in many people believing that the other schools of thought are erroneous and that the Hanafi school of thought is the only correct school of thought. This also results in disregard for the narrations cited above.
  8. Thousands of people walking away as the congregational Witr Ṣalāh begins would disturb and possibly harm others due to the congestion.
  9. This would also create gaps within rows.
  10. Following another school of thought or a minority view within a school is not impermissible if there is a need to do so, especially when there is no fulfilment of personal desires.

It is therefore advisable for those visiting Saudi Arabia to perform Witr Ṣalāh behind the Imām. Additionally, there is no need to repeat the Witr Ṣalāh as this is contrary to the Prophetic narration that suggests that Witr Ṣalāh should not be performed twice in one night[37]. Similarly, one should follow the Imām and perform the Salām after the second Rak’ah. This is because the Prophet ﷺ has said, “The Imām is appointed so that he is followed”[38]. It should also be borne in mind that the validity of Witr Ṣalāh described above is not restricted to Makkah and Madinah.

Allah knows best

Yūsuf Shabbīr, Blackburn, UK

www.nawadir.org

9 Jumādā al-Thāniyah – 19 March 2016

Footnotes

[1] Tabyīn al-Ḥaqāiq (1: 171); al-Baḥr al-Rāiq (2: 42); Radd al-Muḥtār (2: 8).

[2] Ḥāshiyah Durar al-Ḥukkām (1: 112); Tabyīn al-Ḥaqāiq (1: 171); Minḥat al-Khāliq (2: 51); al-‘Ināyah (1: 438); Ḥāshiyah al-Ṭaḥṭāwī (1: 385); Radd al-Muḥtār (2: 8).

[3] Siyar A’lām al-Nubalā (16: 131); al-Jawāhir al-Muḍiyyah (2: 68); Tāj al-Tarājim (1: 264).

[4] Fatḥ al-Qadīr (1: 437); Tabyīn al-Ḥaqāiq (1: 171); al-Baḥr al-Rāiq (2: 42); Radd al-Muḥtār (2: 8).

[5] Al-Jawāhir al-Muḍiyyah (1: 84); Tāj al-Tarājim (1: 96); al-A’lām (1: 171).

[6] Manẓūmah Ibn Wahbān (manuscript, p. 4); Ḥāshiyah Durar al-Ḥukkām (1: 112); al-‘Arf al-Shadhī (1: 71); Ma’ārif al-Sunan (1: 163; 4: 170).

[7] Al-Durar al-Kāminah (3: 230); al-Manhal al-Ṣāfī (7: 378); Tāj al-Tarājim (1: 198); al-A’lām (4: 180).

[8] Fatḥ al-Qadīr (1: 437).

[9] Al-Ḍaw al-Lāmi’ (6: 109); al-Manhal al-Ṣāfī (5: 394; 7: 193); al-A’lām (5: 57).

[10] Ramz al-Ḥaqāiq (1: 45).

[11] Majmū’ah al-Fatāwā (p. 192); Sharḥ al-Hidāyah (2: 34); ‘Umdat al-Ri’āyah (2: 392).

[12] Fayḍ al-Bārī (1: 458).

[13] al-‘Arf al-Shadhī (1: 70); Ma’ārif al-Sunan (1: 161).

[14] Ma’ārif al-Sunan (1: 163; 4: 170).

[15] Fatāwā Ḥaqqāniyyah (3: 242).

[16] Jadīd Fiqhī Mabāḥith (13: 32). For the Darul Uloom Deoband Fatwa, click here.

[17] The Fatwa approved by a group of scholars from Darul Uloom Karachi is downloadable from the following link: Darul Uloom Karachi Fatwa Regarding Witr in Haramayn.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Kitāb al-Nawāzil (4: 562).

[20] Kitāb al-Nawāzil (4: 562); Jadīd Fiqhī Mabāḥith (13: 181).

[21] Jadīd Fiqhī Mabāḥith (13: 136); Kitāb al-Fatāwā (2: 330).

[22] Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (991).

[23] Sunan al-Bayhaqī (3: 36); Muṣannaf ‘Abd al-Razzāq (4653).

[24] Muṣannaf ‘Abd al-Razzāq (4672).

[25] Muṣannaf ‘Abd al-Razzāq (4672).

[26] Sunan al-Bayhaqī (2: 32); Al-Mughnī (2: 100); al-Majmū’ Sharḥ al-Muhadhab (4: 22).

[27] Mukhtaṣar Kitāb al-Watr (p. 20).

[28] Ibid.

[29] Ibid; al-Mughnī (2: 100).

[30] Al-Mughnī (2: 100).

[31] Ibid.

[32] Ibid; al-Majmū’ (4: 24).

[33] Al-Mudawwanah (1: 212); Mukhtaṣar Kitāb al-Watr (p. 20).

[34] Al-Umm (1: 164); al-Majmū’ (4: 24).

[35] Sunan al-Tirmidhī (461); Mukhtaṣar Kitāb al-Watr (p. 20); al-Mughnī (2: 100).

[36] Ibid.

[37] Sunan Abū Dawūd (1439); Sunan al-Tirmidhī (470); Sunan al-Nasāī (1679); Muṣannaf Ibn Abī Shaybah (2: 84); Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Khuzaymah (1101); Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān (2449); Musnad Aḥmad (16289; 16296).

[38] Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (378).